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Designing Autonomous and Backup Power Supply Systems for Private Homes and Enterprises in Ukraine

When designing power supply systems for homes or businesses, the primary focus is on the quality and reliability of the supplied electrical energy for consumers. Electronic stabilization and energy flow management systems from various sources, such as inverters, stabilizers, uninterruptible power supplies, etc., are responsible for monitoring these parameters.

The inverter is the heart of an uninterruptible power supply system. Its main task is to monitor the quality of electrical energy coming from the external grid and manage the energy flows from various sources, such as the external grid, batteries, solar panels, wind generators, diesel generators, etc. The inverter's output is connected to electrical energy consumers, ensuring a constant supply of clean sinusoidal energy with the correct voltage and frequency. These parameters can be adjusted in the settings based on the load requirements. The inverter monitors the quality of the incoming electrical energy from the external grid. In case of deviation from the specified parameters or emergencies, it switches the power supply from the external grid to the batteries.

Battery Storage Systems for Autonomous Power Supply

Batteries, through their built-in charger, can be charged from several sources: the external grid, solar panels, wind generators, gasoline or diesel generators. The battery capacity is selected based on the load power. The optimal configuration ensures the operation of reserved equipment for 3-4 hours, which is usually sufficient to resolve minor grid failures. If a backup time of 10 hours or more is required, it is better to use a fuel generator. The inverter's control system can prioritize the connection of energy sources to the loads. For example, when there is sunlight, all the energy from solar panels is directed to the loads and to charge the batteries. When there is no sunlight, the batteries are engaged, and when they are discharged, the system switches back to the external grid. In case of a complete disconnection of all energy sources, an automatic start command can be sent to the diesel generator.

Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)

An uninterruptible power supply is an inverter that operates solely with the external grid and batteries. While the external grid is active, the batteries are charged, and the loads are powered. In case of a grid failure, the loads are switched to the power supplied by the battery. Usually, UPS devices have built-in battery banks that provide autonomous operation of the loads for up to 30 minutes. By connecting external batteries, the backup time can be extended to several hours. UPS devices are used to provide backup power for critical loads that cannot afford to lose power, such as heating systems, refrigerators, lighting, computer systems, security systems, video surveillance, etc.

Stabilizers ensure the specified standard voltage at the output and protect loads from emergencies in the external grid, such as voltage spikes, short circuits, phase or neutral breaks, etc. Stabilizers can be mechanical, electro-mechanical, or electronic in operation. Electronic stabilizers offer the shortest response time, smooth operation, and the highest stabilization accuracy. Stabilizers are used when it is necessary to correct poor quality of the external electrical grid and protect consumers from emergencies.

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